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« le logiciel libre est la seule voie possible pour bâtir des systèmes d'information modernes... »

Extrait de l'intervention de Cyrille Béraud le 24 mars dernier à l'occasion de la commission parlementaire sur le  projet de loi 133: Loi sur la gouvernance et la gestion des ressources informationnelles des organismes publics et des entreprises du gouvernement.

Le diagnostic

Avant d'envisager les solutions proposées pour améliorer la gouvernance et la gestion des ressources informationnelles, il nous faut faire un diagnostic le plus précis possible.

Comment expliquer la succession d'échecs dans la mise en œuvre de nombreux projets informatiques gouvernementaux ces dix dernières années ? Comment expliquer les défaillances dans la gestion de la plupart de ces projets, comme en témoignent les dépassements de coûts systématiques, et souvent dans des proportions faramineuses ?

Les systèmes d'information des organisations, et en particuliers ceux de l'État, sont devenus des systèmes fortement intégrés, complexes, hétérogènes et en mutation constante.

Ce changement mal anticipé de paradigme explique, d'après nous, en grande partie l'impasse à laquelle ont menées les politiques précédentes.

Pour mettre en œuvre ces systèmes d'information modernes, l'organisation se doit d'abord d'être maître de l'ensemble de ses composants. Elle doit en être pleinement propriétaire.

Elle doit posséder l'outillage technologique nécessaire. Enfin, elle doit mettre en œuvre une méthodologie de gouvernance de projet adaptée.

En utilisant massivement des logiciels qui, par leurs licences, restreignent drastiquement l'usage qu'elles peuvent en faire - je parle ici des logiciels privatifs -, les administrations se sont privées de la liberté d'adapter continuellement leurs outils à leurs besoins. Ceci entraînant un surcoût et un gâchis de ressources financières et humaines incommensurables.

En se privant d'utiliser l'extraordinaire boîte à outils disponible sur Internet, elles se sont condamnées à reconstruire sans cesse ce qui existait déjà.

Enfin, en mettant en œuvre des méthodologies de gouvernance de leurs projets dépassées, elles se sont privées de la mutualisation extrêmement bénéfique des ressources logiciels et de l'expertise humaine rare et coûteuse.

Le logiciel libre est la réponse apportée par l'industrie du logiciel pour bâtir les nouveaux systèmes d'information modernes. Incontournable, il est devenu la norme dans cette industrie à travers le monde.

Il n'est pas une garantie en soi du succès des projets informatiques. Bien d'autres paramètres rentrent en ligne de compte. Mais l'APELL affirme que le logiciel libre est la seule voie possible pour bâtir des systèmes d'information modernes.

 

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